The tough new regional lockdowns unveiled ordered the closure of hundreds of pubs in the North West of England for four weeks from October 14.
Six boroughs in Liverpool, covering 1.6 million people, were the first to be placed in the highest tier of new restrictions. Pubs, gyms, casinos, bookmakers and social clubs will shut for at least one month, and possibly up to six.
Lancashire followed on October 17, and restrictions are planned in Manchester, though the Mayor, Andy Burnham, is resisting.
Regions deemed at highest risk could also face bans on households mixing indoors and outdoors, on overnight stays outside their area and on all but essential travel for work or education in or beyond the region.
These additional restrictions are not expected to be enforced in Liverpool for the time being. However, the Army logistics corps has been called up to help with Covid testing and contact tracing in the region through mobile centres staffed by soldiers, and the Government has provided additional funds to pay for officials to help enforce the new rules. And police are to be given the power to access the NHS Test and Trace database if they suspect that an individual should be self-isolating with suspected coronavirus.
There are currently tighter restrictions in 17 areas of Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and parts of North Wales, affecting more than 2.3 million people.
These prohibit people from entering or leaving an area without a reasonable excuse such as work or education.
Under the more general lockdown rules in Wales, licensed premises have to stop selling alcohol at 10pm, face coverings are mandatory in indoor public spaces and public transport, and people cannot gather in groups of more than 30 outdoors.
The rules also say people are not allowed to meet indoors with people they do not live with, unless they have formed an extended household.
People in Wales can meet indoors in a group of up to six people, with children under 11 not included in the number.
The country’s health minister Vaughan Gething has also said Wales could be placed under a new national lockdown in order to halt a sharp rise in coronavirus cases.
Meanwhile, First Minister Mark Drakeford said Wales is banning entry to people from areas of Britain with high levels of coronavirus because Boris Johnson has failed to impose UK-wide travel restrictions.
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said England’s tiered alert system would “give an idea” of a similar scheme to be proposed in Scotland.
It will be discussed by MSPs after the October recess and could come into effect when stricter measures are due to be eased on October 25.
Pubs, bars, restaurants and cafes outside central Scotland can only conduct indoor business between 6am and 6pm and not serve alcohol, although alcoholic drinks can be served until 10pm in outdoor areas.
But pubs and licensed restaurants in five health board areas – Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Lanarkshire, Ayrshire and Arran, Lothian, and Forth Valley – have been forced to close for all but takeaway service until October 26.
Snooker and pool halls, indoor bowling, casinos and bingo halls have also been made to close and no outdoor live events are allowed in these five areas.
In addition, shops have been asked to return to two metres of physical distancing and to reintroduce measures from earlier in the pandemic such as one-way systems.
In terms of seeing friends and family, people cannot meet others from another household unless they are part of an “extended household”, available to people who live alone or only with children under 18.
People can meet outdoors in groups of up to six, not including children under 12, from no more than two households, and a maximum of six people from two households can meet in public indoor spaces such as cafes, pubs and restaurants.
Ms Sturgeon has advised Scots against travelling to high-risk areas of England as she singled out Blackpool as “associated with a large and growing number of Covid cases in Scotland”.